@OSTAustria_DC on Twitter

Welcome to the bridges Author Index!

The bridges Author Index contains short biographies of people that have contributed articles to bridges, the OST's online magazine on STI policy.

To find the author you are looking for, click on the first letter of the author's last name in the column on the left-hand side of this page. A list will appear with the names of all authors whose last names begin with the letter you chose.

Click on the author that you wish to learn more about and his/her short biography will be shown.

If you have any questions or concerns, feel free to contact us at bridges[at]ostina.org

1"Whereas History and Anthropology know of different economic forms, most of which contain the setting up of markets, they do not know of any economy before ours that was even remotely so dominated and controlled by markets." (translated from Polanyi 1978, 72)
2 That is "any more or less laid down form of action with the capacity to exert an external compulsion on the individual; or also generally appearing in the field of a given society and possessing a life of its own, independent of its individual expressions" (translated from Durkheim 1984, 5).

3 By training and career, Schumpeter was an economist, however so "innovative" as such because he thought and researched in an interdisciplinary manner - especially with reference to Sociology and Political Science - that an appreciation by prominent Harvard economists published shortly after his death portrayed him as being a "social scientist" (cf. Harris 1951).

4 At this point he adds that this is his opinion, but not a scientific diagnosis. For "[What] counts with any attempt at a social forecast is not the yes or no summarizing the facts and arguments leading to it, but these facts and arguments themselves. They contain everything that is scientific about the definitive result. Anything else is not science, but prophecy. Any analysis, be it economic or of a different nature will at any rate never be able to contain more than an establishment of the trends existing in an object of observation. These never tell us what will happen to the object, but only what would happen, if they continued to act as they acted in the period covered by our observation and if no other factors appeared." (translated from Schumpeter 2005, 105)

5 Indicative list; antecedents prior to 2000 were: 1970 ff: publications by Stuart Conger on “Social Inventions” (new 2009); 1985: Institute for Social Inventions, London; 1986: establishment of the Centre de recherche sur les innovations sociales (CRISES), University of Quebec at Montreal; 1990: Foundation of the Zentrum für Soziale Innovation (ZSI), Vienna; 1994: Foundation of Soziale Innovation GmbH, Dortmund.

6 Cf. Howaldt and Schwarz 2010

7 “‘Social innovation’ is a term that almost everyone likes, but nobody is quite sure of what it means.” Pol and Ville 2009, 881.
8 ZSI 2008, 2. https://www.zsi.at/object/publication/1390 (accessed on July 16, 2011).

9 These three levels are clearly identified and make up a topical line of arguments and analysis in the so-called “BEPA-Report” (2010), where

10 http://ec.europa.eu/bepa/pdf/publications_pdf/social_innovation.pdf   (accessed on Oct. 26, 2010)

11 Parsons (1976) describes four necessary basic functions as components of action systems, summarized in the so-called “AGIL Scheme”: Adaptation, Goal attainment, Integration, and Latency.

Instead of Parsons’ structural category “collective,” I here choose the concept of “relations”, for Parsons (1976, 181) is also primarily concerned with interactions (based on expectations, achievements, rights, and duties) that become effective in a collective.

13 This categorization also proceeds from the premise that (much like “technical/non-technical” in the case of economic innovations) formal and informal variants can be differentiated in the case of social innovations.

“The material environment of human life ... forms a relatively unsteady foundation ... for social conditions. But in the weakness of this structure lie its meanings: if it bursts, a lot is at stake; to prevent this, ... long-term, more stable elements help to shape social conditions.” (translated from Hochgerner 1986, 63)

15 Above all population development, poverty, climate, the environment, and energy; see also Millennium Development Goals
16 The fact that the “economy” need not be conceived of as being external to society is shown, for instance, by Parsons’ (1976) theoretical concept, used in this article to form categories, which describes the economy as one of four social functional systems of the society.

17 ‘While many of our measures are directed at ascertaining short-run movements in the level of market activity, the Commission considers that the time has come to make a clear move from measuring production to measuring welfare, to try to close the gap between our measures of economic performance and widespread perceptions of well-being.’ Stiglitz, Sen und Fitoussi: The Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress Revisited. Reflections and Overview, 63. www.stiglitz-sen-fitoussi.fr (accessed on October 26, 2010)

18 Die Entgrenzung des Finanzsektors – das Problem hinter den Problemen, Radermacher 2010, 70 ff.

19 Schulmeister 2010.


 Aderhold, Jens. 2010. ‘Probleme mit der Unscheinbarkeit sozialer Innovationen in Wissenschaft und

Gesellschaft’. In Soziale Innovation. Auf dem Weg zu einem postindustriellen Innovationsparadigma,

Jürgen Howaldt and Heike Jacobsen (eds.), 109-126. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.

Blättel-Mink, Birgit, and Alexander Ebner (eds.). 2009. Innovationssysteme: Technologie, Institutionen

und die Dynamik der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. Praktische Vernunft. Zur Theorie des Handelns. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp.

Bureau of European Policy Advisers (BEPA). 2010. Empowering people, driving change:

Social innovation in the European Union. Brussels: European Commission.


Chesbrough, H. W., Wim Vanhaverbeke and Joel West (eds.). 2006. Open Innovation. Researching a

New Paradigm. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Conger, Stuart. 2009. ‘Social Inventions’. The Public Sector Innovation Journal, Volume 14(2).

Durkheim, Emile. 1984. Regeln der soziologischen Methode (1895). Neuwied and Berlin:


European Commission. 2010. Europe 2020 Flagship Initiative: Innovation Union.

http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovationunion/pdf/innovationunioncommunication_en.pdf (status:

12 October 2010).

Franke, Nikolaus, Eric von Hippel and Martin Schreier. 2006. ‘Finding commercially attractive user

innovations. A test of lead user theory’. In Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 23. 301-


Franz, Hans-Werner. 2010. ‘Qualitäts-Management als soziale Innovation’. In Soziale Innovation. Auf

dem Weg zu einem postindustriellen Innovationsparadigma, Jürgen Howaldt and Heike Jacobsen

(eds.), 335-354. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.

Freeman, Christopher. 1995. The ‘National System of Innovation’ in Historical Perspective. Cambridge

Journal of Economics, Vol. 19(1).

Harris, Seymour E. (ed.). 1951. Joseph A. Schumpeter: Social Scientist. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard

University Press.

Hochgerner, Josef. 1986. Arbeit und Technik. Einführung in die Techniksoziologie. Stuttgart:


Hochgerner, Josef. 1999. Jenseits der großen Transformation. Arbeit, Technik und Wissen in der

Informationsgesellschaft. Vienna: Löcker.

Hochgerner, Josef. 2009. ‘Innovation Processes in the Dynamics of Social Change’. In Innovation

Cultures. Challenge and Learning Strategy, Jiři Loudin and Klaus Schuch (eds.), 17-45. Prague:


Howaldt, Jürgen, and Heike Jacobsen (eds.). 2010. Soziale Innovation. Auf dem Weg zu einem

postindustriellen Innovationsparadigma. Dortmunder Beiträge zur Sozialforschung. Wiesbaden: VS


Howaldt, Jürgen, and Michael Schwarz. 2010. ‘Soziale Innovation – Konzepte, Forschungsfelder und

perspektive’. In Soziale Innovation. Auf dem Weg zu einem postindustriellen Innovationsparadigma,

87-108. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.

Hurrelmann, Klaus. 1990. Einführung in die Sozialisationstheorie. Weinheim and Basel: Beltz.

Kesselring, Alexander, and Michaela Leitner. 2008. Soziale Innovation in Unternehmen. Studie erstellt

im Auftrag der Unruhe-Privatstiftung; Wien: ZSI https://www.zsi.at/object/publication/1444 (status:

12 October 2010).

Mensch, Gerhard. 1977. Das technologische Patt. Innovationen überwinden die Depression. Frankfurt

a. M.: Fischer TBV.

Morel, Julius et al. 1993. Soziologische Theorie. Abriß der Ansätze ihrer Hauptvertreter. Munich:


Nelson, Richard (ed.). 1993. National Innovation Systems. A Comparative Analysis. Oxford: Oxford

University Press.


Nelson, Richard, and Edmund Phelps. 1966. ‘Investment in humans, technological diffusion, and

economic growth’. In American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 51(2), 69-75.

OECD, and EUROSTAT. 2005. Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data.

Third Edition. Paris: OECD.

Parsons, Talcott. 1976. Zur Theorie des Sozialsystems (1951). Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.

Pol, Eduardo, and Simon Ville. 2009. ‘Social innovation: Buzz word or enduring term?’ In The Journal

of SocioEconomics, Vol. 38. 878-885.

Polanyi, Karl. 1978. The Great Transformation. Politische und ökonomische Ursprünge von

Gesellschaften und Wirtschaftssystemen (1944). Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp.

Radermacher, Franz Josef. 2010. Die Zukunft unserer Welt. Navigieren in schwierigem Gelände.

Essen: Edition Stifterverband.

Rammert, Werner. 2010. ‘Die Innovationen der Gesellschaft’. In Soziale Innovation. Auf dem Weg zu

einem postindustriellen Innovationsparadigma, 21-51. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.

Reckwitz, Andreas, 2003. ‘Grundelemente einer Theorie sozialer Praktiken. Eine sozialtheoretische

Perspektive’. In Zeitschrift für Soziologie, Jg. 32, Heft 4. 282-300.

Reichwald, Ralf, Anton Meyer, Marc Engelmann and Dominik Walcher. 2007. Der Kunde als

Innovationspartner. Wiesbaden: Gabler.

Rogers, Everett. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: The Free Press.

Rosted, Jørgen et al. 2009. New Nature of Innovation. Study report to the OECD Committee for

Industry, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship (CIIE), jointly funded by the Danish and Finnish

governments. Copenhagen: FORA.

Schulmeister, Stephan. 2010. Mitten in der großen Krise. Ein „New Deal“ für Europa. Wiener

Vorlesungen, Edition Gesellschaftskritik, Vol. 7. Vienna: Picus.

Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1934. The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard

University Press.

Schumpeter, Joseph A. 2006. Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. Eine Untersuchung über

Unternehmergewinn, Kapital, Kredit, Zins und den Konjunkturzyklus (1911). Berlin: Duncker &


Schumpeter, Joseph A. 2005. Kapitalismus, Sozialismus und Demokratie (1942). Tübingen: UTB.

Vasconcelos, Diogo et al. (Business Panel on future EU innovation policy). 2009. Reinvent Europe

through innovation. From a knowledge society to an innovation society. http://ec.europa.

eu/enterprise/policies/innovation/files/panel_report_en.pdf (Stand: 12.10.2010).

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 2004. World-Systems Analysis. An Introduction. Durham: Duke University


Weber, Max. 2005. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft (1922). Frankfurt a. M.: Zweitausendeins.

ZSI (Zentrum für Soziale Innovation). 2008. Impulse für die gesellschaftliche Entwicklung. ZSI

Discussion Paper 9. https://www.zsi.at/object/publication/1399 (status: 12.10.2010).

Click here to go back to the article.

More Articles ...